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Definition and classification of Giặm singing and Ví singing.
Posted on: 6/11/2020 - Viewed: 223

I. What is Giặm singing? And first of all, what does Giặm mean?

This term is interpreted in many different ways. According to Nguyễn Đổng Chi, the people of Nghệ - Tĩnh understand that Giặm is “to bring something to insert or fill in missing something. It is in relation to the term dắm, and dắm dúi. Dắm is of Nghệ - Tĩnh’s language that means growing the died or missing crops in a field again. Dắm dúi means putting into the hands or giving something secretly or offering somebody a bride"

In Giam singing by repartees, the sentence of the respondents must connect with the rhyme at the end of sentence of the questioner:

Question: I would like to ask you some words

Please answer clearly

Response: Your words make me sad

According to Nguyễn Đổng Chi, the rhyme connection means Giam, also known as bắt xắp, and as a result, Nghe Tinh's Giam singing is called hát Xắp or hát Luồn. Giam singing has three styles:

1. The first style is singing by extemporizing between boys and girls, men and women; which may be called Giặm nam nữ (Giặm singing between boys and girls);

2. The second style is also singing by extemporizing without repartees between boys and girls but between people and friends during free time to tell about a few new things happening in the area or something in other regions; or someone who sings well visits his/her friends' house sings to salute or praise his/her friends for the good; This style singing may be called hat Giặm thời sự.

3. The third style is singing to tell a whole story or a legend; it may be called, according to the words of Nguyễn Đổng Chi, hát Giặm vè, because its way of telling the story is very close to style


II. What is Hát Ví (Vi singing)?


Giam singing is a song with five-word verses (or called ngũ ngôn), while Vi singing is a song with six-eight-word verses(or called lục bát). The term Vi produces Ví hát, ví von, and may be synonymous with the word tỉ in the Chinese Book of Poetry. The Chinese book of Poetry recorded the songs of the peasants under the ancient times, in which the verses have been written in one of three styles: phú describing the facts directly), tỉ (making comparison between things), hứng (on the occasion of a fact to talk about what you want to say). After all, "most of the Vi lyrics often take one thing or the other to compare with the opinions which are intended to express”.

Unlike Giam singing that includes many styles as mentioned above, Vi singing has only one way of singing by repartees between boys and girls. Giam singing is mostly performed for amusement in the break or in the festival. Meanwhile, Ví singing is formed and developed in manual working (for example, farming or crafts); most jobs in Nghe Tinh have their own Vi singing: this is a characteristic of activities, which is not found in other areas and regions. Vi singing includes the following categories:


-         Ví phường cấy (singing of the paddy transplanting troupe). Ví phường gặt (singing of the paddy reaping troupe)

-         Ví phường vải (singing of the fabric weaving troupe)

-         Ví phường nón (singing of the hat sewing troupe)

-         Ví phường đan (singing of the knitwork troupe)

-         Ví phường chiếu (singing of the mat making troupe)

-         Ví phường vàng (singing of the votive paper making troupe)

-         Ví phường đường (Singing of the sugar-cane processing troupe)

-         Ví phường củi (singing of the firewood cutting troupe)

-         Ví đò đưa (barcarolle)

-         Ví chăn trâu (singing while grazing buffalo)

-         Ví phường buôn (singing of the trading troupe, in which phường buôn bộ (refer to the persons carrying products on their shoulders with a pole and two hangers and walking to sell) includes the troupes trading in tea, aubergine, rice, mat, browntuber, and so on: in addition, there is also phường buôn đò dọc (refer to the persons transporting their products on the boat)

-         Ví phường vá lái (singing of the netting troupe)

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Center for Conservation and promotion of Nghe Tinh Folk Heritage
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License No. 95 / GP-TTĐT August 6, 2014 by the Nghe An Department of Information and Communications